The Supreme Court of the United States
On 7 July 1981 (28 years ago today), President Reagan announced he was nominating Arizona Judge Sandra Day O'Connor to become the first female justice on the U.S. Supreme Court (Reagan had pledged during the 1980 presidential campaign to appoint a woman to the Supreme Court). She would be nominated to replace Potter Stewart as an Associate Justice.
President Reagan and Sandra Day O'Connor
There have been 110 Supreme Court Justices in the history of our nation, but only two have been female (of note, there have also only been two Justices of African-American descent: Thurgood Marshall and Clarence Thomas.)
O'Connor was confirmed by the United States Senate 99-0 on 21 September and took her seat on the bench 4 days later.
(A little tidbit of trivia: Associate Justices of the Supreme Court receive an annual salary of $208,100 and the Chief Justice receives $217,400.)
She retired from the Court in 2006 and was replaced by Justice Samuel Alito. She currently serves as the Chancellor of the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia.